Risk factors for upper limb venous thrombosis – Cardiology MCQ

Risk factor/s for upper limb venous thrombosis:

a) Vigorous arm exercise

b) Central venous catheter

c) Pacemaker / defibrillator leads

d) All of the above

Correct answer: d) All of the above

Paget-Schroetter syndrome is the spontaneous thrombosis of the deep veins of the upper limb – axillary or subclavian vein after vigorous arm exercise. Sudden jerky movements cause the axillary vein to be crushed between the clavicle and the first rib. This can damage the intima of the vein and initiate thrombosis. Implanted central venous catheters in place for a long time can initiate upper limb venous thrombosis. In case of pacemaker and defibrillator leads, the more the number of leads, higher the risk of thrombosis.