Soluble ST2 as a biomarker in heart failure

ST2 (suppression of tumorigenicity 2) region on chromosome 11 is a locus associated with various forms of cancer. IL1R1 on chromosome 2 has the alias ST2 and encodes a member of the interleukin 1 receptor family [1]. These two are often confused with each other in published literature.

Soluble form of ST2 (sST2) is a novel biomarker for cardiac risk prediction, which is secreted into the circulation. It has been used in the management of heart failure [2]. The other variant is transmembrane ST2 isoform known as ST2L [3]. sST2 values have been positively correlated with the severity of acute heart failure, B-type natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein, and negatively correlated with ejection fraction and creatinine clearance [4]. sST2 when used in combiation with NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B–type natriuretic peptide) is useful in assessing prognosis in chronic heart failure beyond clinical risk socres [5].


  1. ST2 suppression of tumorigenicity 2 [Homo sapiens (human)]. Gene ID: 6761, updated on 30-Jul-2016. Available at:
  2. Quick S et al. Soluble ST2 and myocardial fibrosis in 3T cardiac magnetic resonance. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2015;49(6):361-6.
  3. Díez J. Serum soluble ST2 as a biochemical marker of acute heart failure: future areas of research. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Oct 28;52(18):1466-7.
  4. Rehman SU, Mueller T, Januzzi JL Jr. Characteristics of the novel interleukin family biomarker ST2 in patients with acute heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Oct 28;52(18):1458-65.
  5. Ky B et al. High-sensitivity ST2 for prediction of adverse outcomes in chronic heart failure. Circ Heart Fail. 2011 Mar;4(2):180-7.