Ferro D and colleagues from Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy have come up with evidence [CIRCEP.111.968248 Published online before print February 23, 2012, doi: 10.1161/?CIRCEP.111.968248] that low serum vitamin E levels are associated with recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardioversion. They hypothesise that vitamin E being an antioxidant, low vitamin E levels would correlate with oxidative stress which could have a role in recurrence of atrial fibrillation after cardioversion. The study involved one hundred and forty four patients who had undergone electrical cardioversion with biphasic shocks for non valvar persistent atrial fibrillation. During the three month follow up ninety four patients were in sinus rhythm while fifty had recurrence of atrial fibrillation. Serum vitamin E levels were lower in patients with recurrence of atrial fibrillation (p<0.001). Higher left atrial diameter, urinary isoprostanes, high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) and sNOX2-dp (soluble NOX2-derived peptide) were also noted in those with recurrence of atrial fibrillation after cardioversion.