Platonov PG and colleagues evaluated the role of atrial fibrillary rate in predicting the outcome in mild to moderate heart failure [Low Atrial Fibrillatory Rate Is Associated with Poor Outcome in Patients with Mild to Moderate Heart Failure. CIRCEP.111.964395 Published online before print January 10, 2012, doi: 10.1161/?CIRCEP.111.964395]. Atrial fibrillary rate is a measure of the atrial remodeling due to atrial fibrillation, which is both electrical and mechanical. The investigators analyzed high resolution twenty minute Holter electrocardiograms from one hundred and sixty nine patients with congestive heart failure. Estimation of atrial fibrillary rate was done using spatiotemporal QRST cancellation and time frequency analysis. Mean follow up period was forty four months and total mortality was the primary end point. Sudden death and heart failure death were secondary end points. Authors concluded that a reduced atrial fibrillary rate was associated with higher risk of death due to the progression of heart failure and could be a predictor of poor outcome.